Updated October 2019
1. ABOUT ANTI-DOPING / CLEAN SPORT
The IWWF has been signed up to the World Anti-Doping Code for many years and is committed to drug free sport in all forms of waterskiing and wakeboarding.
This page can assist athletes, coaches, parents and Federations in finding all the necessary information they may need to avoid using any banned substances.
Athletes are urged to follow links to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) where a huge amount of information can be found on this subject.
WHAT IS DOPING?
Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs):
- Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
- Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
- Refusing to submit to sample collection after being notified
- Failure to file athlete whereabouts information and missed tests
- Tampering with any part of the doping control process
- Possession of a prohibited substance or method
- Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
- Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
- Complicity in an ADRV
- Prohibited association with athlete support personnel who has engaged in doping
WHY IS DOPING IN SPORT PROHIBITED?
The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete’s health and to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport, a commitment to clean sport is critical.
WHAT DO ATHLETES AND ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ANTI-DOPING?
Every athlete has the right to clean sport.
Any athlete may be tested in or out of competition, anytime and anywhere and with no advance notice.
The principle of strict liability applies in anti-doping – if it is in the athlete’s body, the athlete is responsible for it.
Athletes’ responsibilities include (but are not limited to):
- complying with the IWWF Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code);
- being available for sample collection (urine or blood), whether in-competition or out-of-competition;
- ensuring that no prohibited substance enters his body and that no prohibited method is used;
- making sure that any treatment is not prohibited according to the Prohibited List in force and checking this with the prescribing physicians, or directly with the IWWF if necessary;
- applying to the IWWF (or national anti-doping organization if the athlete is a national level athlete) if no alternative permitted treatment is possible and a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) is required.
- reporting immediately for sample collection after being notified of a doping control;
- ensuring the accuracy of the information entered on the doping control form during sample collection (including stating any medications and supplements taken within the seven days prior to sample collection, and where the sample collected is a blood sample, blood transfusions within the previous three months);
- cooperating with anti-doping organizations investigating anti-doping rules violations (ADRVs); and
- not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other athlete support personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV or who have been criminally convicted or professionally disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List)
Note: during doping control, the athlete must remain within direct observation of the Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperone at all times from when the initial contact is made until the completion of the sample collection procedure. The athlete must also produce identification upon request.
Athletes’ rights include (but are not limited to):
- during the doping control:
- bringing a representative and, if available, an interpreter;
- asking for additional information about the sample collection process;
- requesting a delay in reporting to the doping control station for valid reasons (International Standard for Testing and Investigations 5.4.4); and
- requesting modifications for athletes with impairments (if applicable).
- requesting and attending the B sample analysis (in the case of an Adverse Analytical Finding); and
- in the case of an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) being asserted, the athlete has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.
Coaches, trainers, managers, agents and other support personnel have a role in defending clean sport and supporting the athletes in the anti-doping processes.
Athlete Support Personnel obligations include (but are not limited to):
- knowing and complying with all applicable anti-doping policies and rules, including the IWWF’s Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code); and
- refraining from possessing a prohibited substance (or a prohibited method)*, administering any such substance or method to an athlete, trafficking, covering up an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) or other forms of complicity and associating with a person convicted of doping (prohibited association). These are ADRVs applicable to Athlete Support Personnel under Article 2 of the World Anti-Doping Code and Article 2 of the IWWF’s Anti-Doping Rules.
* unless the Athlete Support Personnel can establish that the possession is consistent with a TUE granted to an athlete or other acceptable justification. Acceptable justification would include, for example, a team doctor carrying Prohibited Substances for dealing with acute and emergency situations.
Athlete Support Personnel rights include (but are not limited to):
In the case of an ADRV being asserted, the Athlete Support Personnel has the right to a fair hearing and the right to appeal the hearing decision.
Sport Physician’s Tool Kit – online version
WHAT IS WADA AND WHAT IS ITS ROLE?
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 as an independent international agency and is composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include in particular scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, investigations and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code and its application by Code signatories (International Federations, National Anti-Doping Organizations, Major Event Organizations, etc.).
For more information about WADA, consult:
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION (IWWF)?
Anti-doping activities required of IFs by the World Anti-Doping Code include conducting in- competition and out-of-competition testing, providing education programs and sanctioning those who commit anti-doping rule violations.
If you have any anti-doping queries, please contact the IWWF Anti-Doping Manager.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL ANTI-DOPING ORGANIZATIONS (NADOs)?
NADOs are organizations designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement national anti-doping rules, carry out anti-doping education, plan tests and adjudicate anti-doping rule violations at a national level. They may also test athletes from other countries competing within that nation’s borders.
Check the list of NADOs to find out who to contact in your country.
If a NADO has not been designated in a country, the National Olympic Committee (NOC), if there is no NADO, takes over these responsibilities. In a number of regions of the world, countries have pooled their resources together to create a Regional Anti-Doping Organization (RADO) responsible for conducting anti-doping activities in the region in support of NADOs.
Check the list of RADOs.
RADOs bring together geographically-clustered groups of countries where there are limited or no anti-doping activities. The RADOs provide anti-doping education for athletes, coaches and support personnel, testing of athletes, training of local personnel to undertake this task and an administrative framework to operate within.
2. DOCUMENTS / RULES
The IWWF Anti-Doping Rules are based on the World Anti-Doping Code and have been adapted to all IWWF Sports Divisions.
The World Anti-Doping Code is the core document that provides the framework for harmonized anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities. It works in conjunction with 5 International Standards aimed at bringing harmonization among anti-doping organizations in various areas: Testing & Investigations (ISTI), Laboratories (ISL), Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE), Protection of Privacy and Personal Information (ISPPPI), and the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (see IWWF’s Prohibited List section).
3. TESTING & INTELLIGENCE
The aim of testing is to detect and deter doping among athletes to protect clean athletes.
Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of the IWWF may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine or blood sample.
WHAT ARE TESTING POOLS AND WHY ARE WHEREABOUTS IMPORTANT FOR CLEAN SPORT?
No-advance notice out-of-competition testing is one of the most powerful means of deterrence and detection of doping. To support this type of testing, the IWWF has created testing pools as part of its testing program.
Certain athletes in the IWWF testing pools, such as those in the International Registered Testing Pool (IRTP) are required to provide information on their whereabouts in ADAMS, WADA’s online anti-doping administration and management system. Equally some National Federations have their own National Testing Pools.
The IWWF updates the composition of the testing pool (IRTP) regularly/at least yearly. Athletes in the IRTP are chosen based on set criteria.
The establishment of the IRTP shall be done at the end of each competition season when all World Championships are concluded. This will be usually mid-November.
The IRTP pool of athletes will be determined by random draw from the top ranked 5 male and female athletes in each of the Medium Risk & Cable Wakeboard discipline / events.
Top ranked will mean from the World Rankings List in those disciplines which have Rankings Lists. For the other division – Racing – the top 5 will be determined from the results of the latest World Championships.
HOW DO ATHLETES KNOW THEY NEED TO PROVIDE WHEREABOUTS?
Athletes who need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS for the IWWF are notified by the IWWF of their inclusion in the IWWF’s testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of them, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.
WHAT SHOULD ATHLETES DO IF THEY WISH TO RETIRE OR RETURN TO COMPETITION AFTER RETIRING?
All IWWF-licensed athletes (via their National Federation) who decide to retire from competition must inform the IWWF.
For IRTP athletes, as soon as the retirement is officially confirmed to the IWWF, the athlete will be withdrawn from the IWWF’s RTP with immediate effect. If an athlete wishes to resume competing, they will not be able to do so until they have given the IWWF written notice of their intent to resume competing and made themselves available for testing for a period of six months. Please consult Article 5.7 of the IWWF Anti-Doping Rules.
WHAT SHOULD AN ATHLETE, ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL OR ANY PERSON AWARE OF DOPING PRACTICES IN THE SPORT DO?
IWWF has produced Procedures for collection, processing, assessment and usage of information (intelligence) for anti-doping purposes.
This document can be viewed at this link.
Alternatively you can click on the link to the WADA Whistleblowing programme SPEAKUP
All intelligence received will be handled securely and confidentially (stored in a password protected file), so that sources of intelligence are protected, and the risk of leaks or inadvertent disclosure is properly addressed.
4. PROHIBITED LIST
The Prohibited List identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The list is updated annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.
It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.
Many of the substances on the Prohibited List have no medical application, but for those that do, the list only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances; the list does not contain brand names of the medications, which vary from country to country. Before taking any medication, please make sure to check with your prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance.
The IWWF will only allow an athlete to use a prohibited substance for medical reasons if the athlete has a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the substance that the IWWF has granted or recognized. See the TUE process below.
Before taking any medication, please make sure to check with your prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance.
- Check that the generic name or International Non-proprietary Name (INN) of any active ingredient is not prohibited under the Prohibited List (‘in- competition only’ or at ‘all times’). For example, Modafinil (INN) is prohibited in- competition according to the Prohibited List and is in sold in English-speaking countries under brand names such as Alertec®, Modavigil® and Provigil®. These brand names do not appear on the
- Check that the medication does not contain any pharmaceutical substances that would fall within a general category that is prohibited. Many sections of the Prohibited List only contain a few examples and state that other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) are also
- Be aware that intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50mL per 6-hour period are prohibited, regardless of the status of the substances.
- If you have any doubt, contact the IWWF (or your NADO if you are a national- level athlete).
Useful Online Databases*
The following online country-specific drug reference databases are also available for checking the status of a medication bought in that country.
- GlobalDRO* (for Canada, UK, USA, Japan and Australia)
- GlobalDRO link to other countries’ online databases*
* Important note: the IWWF and WADA do not take responsibility for the information provided on these websites.
5.THERAPEUTIC USE EXEMPTIONS (TUEs)
A TUE is a certificate granted by an anti-doping organization (IF for international-level athletes, NADO for national-level athletes and MEO (Major Event Organizers) for athletes participating in an MEO event such as the PanAm, Asian, Mediterranean Games]). The certificate is for a set prohibited substance, in certain dosages, with a limited period of validity. An application for a TUE must be based on a documented medical condition and diagnosis and the TUE will only be granted under strict criteria laid out in the International Standard of TUEs.
Athletes must absolutely avoid taking a medication with a prohibited substance without a valid TUE.
The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample without a valid TUE is an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV), as are the use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method, possession, administration or attempted administration.
Athletes must therefore consult the Prohibited List with their prescribing physician before taking a medication to ensure that no prohibited substance is contained in the medication needed.
An International-Level Athlete whose illness or condition requires treatment with a prohibited substance or method must apply to the IWWF for a TUE following the IWWF’s strict TUE application process.
International Level Athletes are defined in the IWWF Anti-Doping Rules as:
Athletes who were eligible to participate as individual athletes in, or who finished in the top 10 places at, the most recently held biannual IWWF World Championship in the following sports divisions and Events:
World Tournament Open Championships;
World Disabled Championships;
World Barefoot Open Championships;
World Cableski Open Championships;
World Wakeboard (Boat) Open Championships;
World Cable Wakeboard Open Championships;
World Waterski Racing Championships – Open Category;
Athletes who are qualified to participate in IWWF World Cup events;
Athletes who are part of the IWWF Registered Testing Pool.
National Level Athletes are defined as those who do not meet the above criteria.
IWWF TUE APPLICATION PROCEDURE
Procedure for athletes who need to take a prohibited substance for medical reasons
- The TUE request forms must be completed electronically if possible, or in BLOCK CAPITALS.
- The TUE must be completed in English. If the medical information attached is in another language, please enclose translation in English.
- Any TUE request that is incomplete or illegible will not be dealt with and will be returned to the athlete, who will need to submit it again. This will, of course, delay the granting of the TUE and, therefore, the start of treatment.
- In accordance with the WADA International Standard for TUEs, the IWWF TUE Committee’s decision will be completed within 30 days of receipt of all relevant documentation.
- The athlete can only submit one TUE request to one authorizing body at a time. He/she is not allowed to submit the same TUE request to several authorizing bodies.
- If the national anti-doping organization has already granted the athlete a TUE, he/she must send IWWF the certificate, a copy of the original application form and the complete medical file in order for the IWWF TUE Committee to check that it fulfils the IWWF requirements. If this is the case, IWWF will recognize the TUE. IWWF may ask for further documentation.
- This procedure should not in any case hinder or delay implementation of necessary or urgent medical treatment.
To be best informed about what TUE’s may cover the Athlete and/or their Physician are directed to the full WADA resource /question and answer pages on TUE’s.
Click Here to obtain the IWWF TUE Application form
Each TUE application will be carefully evaluated by the IWWF’s Therapeutic Use Exemption Committee and will only be granted in accordance with the International Standard for TUEs and the criteria laid out in article 4 of this standard. If the TUE is granted, the athlete will then be permitted to use the medication during the period of validity of the TUE without committing an Anti-Doping Rules Violation (ADRV).
Regardless of whether a TUE has been granted or not, athletes should always declare on the doping control forms filled out during sample collection any medications and supplements taken within the seven days prior to sample collection, and any blood transfusions in the three months prior for blood samples.
IF’s TUE recognition policy
IWWF will automatically recognize TUE decisions made by National Anti-Doping Organizations. If an Athlete’s TUE falls into a category of automatically recognized TUEs, then he/she does not need to apply to IWWF for recognition of that TUE, provided that such TUE is reported in ADAMS.
If IWWF refuses to recognize a TUE granted by a National Anti-Doping Organization only because medical records or other information are missing that are needed to demonstrate satisfaction of the criteria in the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, the matter should not be referred to WADA. Instead, the file should be completed and re-submitted to IWWF
WADA’s role in the TUE process is two-fold. First, the Agency, through its TUEC, has the right to monitor and review any TUE granted by an ADO and, following such review, to reverse any decision. Second, an athlete who submits a TUE application to an ADO (IF or NADO) and is denied a TUE, can ask WADA to review the decision. If WADA determines that denial of the TUE did not comply with the ISTUE, the Agency can reverse the decision. WADA itself does not accept TUE applications from athletes.
National-Level Athletes are to apply to their National Anti-Doping Organizations (NADO) for a TUE – list of NADOs.
6. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labeling or contamination of dietary supplements.
The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a concern because in many countries the manufacturing and labeling of supplements may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Taking a poorly labeled dietary supplement is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.
Neither WADA nor the IWWF is involved in any supplement certification process and therefore do not certify or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA and the IWWF do not control the quality or the claims of the supplements industry.
7. SANCTIONED ATHLETES & ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL
In accordance with Code Art. 14.3, the IWWF must publish the list of international athletes and athlete support personnel sanctioned under its results management jurisdiction (no later than 20 days after the final appellate decision), and include the following information:
Anti-doping rule violated
Name of the Athlete or other Person committing the violation
Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method involved
Note: if the athlete or other person is a minor, no publication is required.
To view the current list of sanctioned Athletes and Athlete Support Personnel click on the link below.
8. IWWF REPORTING
IWWF is required to publish at least annually, a general statistical report of their Doping Control activities with a copy provided to WADA.
Effective prevention and clean sport values-based education programs are important to create a strong doping-free culture. WADA has developed resources for athletes, coaches, doctors and any other person who wishes to know more about anti-doping.
The anti-doping e-learning platform (ADeL) offers access to all topics related to clean sport and anti-doping. It offers courses for athletes, coaches, doctors, administrators and anyone interested in learning more about anti-doping and protecting the values of clean sport.
ADeL currently includes the following modules:
This online program gives athletes information about the dangers of doping and the importance of anti-doping controls and promotes positive attitudes to avoiding doping. The tool shifts the focus from what athletes are not allowed to do, to offering solutions for clean progression in sport.
CoachTrue provides anti-doping education for coaches of elite and recreational-level athletes. It has different modules covering all anti-doping processes as well as tutorials, scenario-based activities and quizzes.
Sport Physician’s Tool Kit (online) is a streamlined version of the paper based tool kit that allows physicians and other medical personnel to take the course electronically. In addition to covering anti-doping modules specific to sports physicians, there are also three modules covering major games topics, done in collaboration with the IOC. The material contained in the Sport Physician’s Tool Kit (SPTK) is intended to help sport physicians develop anti-doping education programs that can be adapted and customized to suit local cultures, conditions and resources.
ADO Kickstart is a reference tool that supports administrators in delivering their core anti-doping duties on a daily basis. Step-by-Step processes are outlined with supporting templates, relevant resources for each activity.
An anti-doping reference guide/booklet for parents seeking more information to ensure healthy athletic development and prevent the use of prohibited substances. This resource is relevant to parents of all levels of athletes from beginner to elite.
IWWF will shortly be rolling ADEl out to all National Federations for them to use in their Anti-Doping Educational programmes.
To view the Chair and members of IWWF’s Anti-Doping Committee go to
To view the Chair and members of IWWF’s Medical Committee go to
The Chair and members of IWWF’s Therapeutic Use Committee:
Chair Dr. Nenad Dikic, Members – Dr. Lorenzo Benassa, Dr. Ronald Moore.
To view the Chair and members of IWWF’s Doping Hearing Panel go to
For questions about Anti-Doping you can contact: